In September 1972, China and Japan normalized diplomatic relations in the wake of the former US president Richard Nixon’s historic visit to China in February that year, as well as the establishment of China-UK ambassadorial diplomatic relations in March. It paved the way for intensive economic exchanges and warm political relations in the 30 years that followed, despite spats over Japan’s attitude toward its aggression against China during World War II. However, territorial disputes and the Taiwan question have troubled relations in recent years. The relationship is often described as being “cold politically, but warm economically.” Mutual support during the pandemic in the past three years has helped improve public attitudes on both sides. Looking ahead, deepening economic ties and public exchanges which have kept growing are expected to be crucial to build better relations between the two neighbors that have a 2,000-year history of friendship and conflicts.